Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was a famous political figure and anti-apartheid activist from South Africa. He was born on 18 July 1918 at Mvezo village in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. South Africa. He first studied law at Fort Hare, then Witwatersrand University before working as a lawyer in Johannesburg. At that place, he joined The African National Congress (ANC) which is a social-democratic political party in South Africa in 1953 and became its youth league leader in 1944. Then he got involved in anti-colonial and nationalist politics.
When was nelson mandela elected president
After the National Party’s white-only government established a system of racial segregation which privileged whites, Mandela and the ANC committed its overturn. He was appointed as ANC’s Transvaal branch president in 1952, and he launched the Defiance Campaign. He was repeatedly arrested for laws broken activities and was prosecuted unsuccessfully in the 1956 Treason Trial. Influenced by Marxism, He secretly joined the South African Communist Party (SACP) which was banned at the time. His association with the SACP helped to co-found the militant uMkhonto we Sizwe(Spear of the Nation) in 1961 and led a sabotage campaign against the government. In 1962, he was arrested and sentenced to life imprisonment following the rule per Rivonia Trial.
Mandela served 27 years in different prisons, mostly on Robben Island, then Polls Moor Prison, and Victor Vorster Prison. President F.W. de Klerk released him in 1990 when domestic and international pressure, and racial civil war chances increased. Mandela and de Klerk joined hands to end it. In 1994, Mandela led the ANC win and became the first South African black-skinned president. He decided to reconcile the racial groups and created Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate past human rights. He started to introduce land reform, poverty combat, Healthcare expand services. In Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial He worked as a mediator and worked as secretary General of non-aligned movement from year 1998 to 1999. He declined to be the second president which his deputy Thabo Mbeki succeeded. He combated poverty and HIV/AIDS through Nelson Mandela Charity when he became an elder man of the states.
Nelson Mandela Family
Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa was the name of his father and Noqaphi Nosekeni. was the name of his mother. His father married four times. Had had three own sisters, three half-brothers, and six half-sisters. Mandela married first time Evelyn Ntoko Masinon on 5 October 1944. They had four children together but three of them died tragically, except one. The second time, he married Winnie (Winifred) Nomzamo Zanyiwe Madikizela on 14 June 1958, they had two daughters. On his 80th birthday, he married Graça Machel on 18 July 1998. Machel is the widow of Samora Machel who was slain Mozambican President. Nelson Mandela had 17 grandchildren, nine were from the children of Evelyn Mase and eight from the children of Winnie Madikizela.
Nelson Mandela schooling
Nelson Mandela’s Parents were illiterate. His mother was a pious Christian so she sent him to a local Methodist school at the age of seven. English forename “Nelson” was given by his teacher Miss Midingane from the school. Mandela’s mother took him to the “Great Place” palace at Mqhekezweni, where his guardian was Thembu regent, Chief Jongintaba Dalindyebo and his wife Jongintaba. They raised him as their son alongside their son, Justice, and daughter, Nomafu. As Mandela attended every Sunday church service with his guardian, that’s why his life’s significant part was Christianity. He attended a Methodist mission school, he studied English, Xhosa, history, and geography at the place. He developed a love of African history because he listened to the tales of elderly visitors to the palace,
In 1933, Mandela joined Clarkebury Methodist High School for his secondary education in Engcobo which was located at a Western-style institution. It was the largest institute for black Africans in Thembuland where his junior certificate finished within two years. In 1937, he joined the Methodist college at Fort Beaufort in Healdtown. In 1939, he started to study at the University of Fort Hare for a BA degree. Mandela started studying law at the University of the Witwatersrand in 1943, there he faced racism for being the only black student.
In 1952 in Johannesburg, ANC leader Oliver Tambo, Mandela established South Africa’s first Black law practice with ANC leader Oliver Tambo specializing in cases from postpartum 1948 apartheid legislation in Johannesburg, 1952. Following the year, he launched a campaign against passing laws in South Africa. It included black-to-carry documents like passbooks, reference books, etc. which the government restricted for them. He played an important role here by traveling throughout the country being a campaign member, trying to create strong support systems against discriminatory laws. He got involved in drafting the Freedom Charter document for non-racial social democracy in 1955. For his strong support against apartheid, he became the solid target of the authorities.
In December 1956 he was arrested on treason charges rule, more than a hundred other people were also arrested with him. Treason charges were mainly designed to harass anti-apartheid activists and followers. The same year he went on trial but was acquitted eventually in 1961.
how long was nelson mandela in prison
Many unarmed black South African were killed by police forces at Sharpeville in 1960. At the time, ANC was subsequently banned, he started to advocate sabotage acts against the apartheid regime in South Africa. During the time, he went underground for safety, he was known alias “ Black Pimpernel” for his evading capture ability. He was one of the founders of the ANC military wing named “Umkhonto we Sizwe (Spear of the Nation)”.
In 1962, Nelson Mandela traveled to Algeria with a fake Ethiopian passport named David Motsamayi where he was trained by Algerian armed forces for sabotage and guerrilla warfare. In Morocco and Ethiopia, he received military training for antiapartheid. On July 1962, he returned to South Africa but got arrested a few days after his return on 5 August 1962, and he was sentenced to five years imprisonment.
Why was nelson mandela in jail
In October 1963, imprisoned Mandela and several other men tried to stand against the infamous Rivonia Trial. Police l discovered quantities of arms and equipment at the headquarters of the underground. Mandela admitted the truth including his speech from the dock, and for that reason, some of the charges were made against him. His speech caught international attention and acclaim and years later that was published as I Am Prepared to Die. On 12 June 1964, he got punished with life imprisonment, he narrowly escaped the death penalty.
After returning to South Africa from Algeria in 1964, nelson mandela was
Mandela was captured at Robben Island Prison in Cape Town between 1964 to 1982. He was kept at Pollsmoor Prison under maximum security until 19198. He was transferred to Victor Verster Prison near Paarl after tuberculosis treatment. The South African government made conditional offers at different times for his freedom in the condition to recognize the newly independent nation. In 1985, an offer was made to renounce the use of violence. Mandela refused both offers, the second on the premise that only a free man would be able to negotiate, he was not a free man as a prisoner.
Mandela retained wide support from South Africa’s Black population, and his imprisonment made the international community ready to condemn the apartheid regime. After 1983, the political situation of the country deteriorated, and he was engaged by ministers of Pres. P.W. Botha’s government after 1988; met with Botha’s successor, de Klerk, in December 1989.
President de Klerk released Nelson Mandela from prison on 11 February 1990. He became deputy president of the ANC a short time after his release. Nelson became president of the party in July 1991. Mandela successfully built non-racial democracy with de Klerk and end ended apartheid bringing a peaceful transition in South Africa.
Nelson Mandela Nobel Peace price
Nelson Mandela received more than 260 awards from 1960 s to the last moment of his life. On 10 December 1993, he was awarded the most notable of his life called Nobel Peace Prize jointly with Frederik Willem de Klerk Oslo in Norway for his contribution to the apartheid government’s peaceful ending of his works and for applying the bases for a new democratic South Africa.
Nelson Mandela metropolitan University
The great Nelson Mandela University, former name was Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (NMU).On the first of January 2005 the union of three organizations including the Port Elizabeth Technikon, and the University of Port Elizabeth. It offers various levels of academic, technical, and professional programs. It’s a vocational institute that prepares students to be on the professional world level. There are almost 130 study fields including architecture, accounting, laws, software development, website design, and nursing. Workplace experience is part of the curriculum of this university.
NMU is the most extensive higher education university in the Eastern and Southern Cape where approximately 28000 join the campus every year. There are seven different campuses as per demand; One of them is situated in George, and the other is situated in Port Elizabeth. There are many facilities for students at each campus. For example, George Campus offers gym, swimming, sports, biking, and hiking which students can join as per their choice. The main campus is considered the south campus of the university. It was built on 830 hectares of private nature reserve, 22 mammal species, 16 reptile species, 66 bird species, and 4 amphibian species.
Nelson Mandela University helps to prepare students for further life after university. So they interview well for job placements during academic education. Furthermore, it organizes an annual fair for students.
When did nelson mandela die
At the age of 95, Nelson Mandela died due to a lung infection on 5 December 2013, in his hometown Houghton Johannesburg in South Africa. surrounded by his family after a prolonged lung infection. He had been identified by worldwide media as a man of honor. South African government announced 10 days of national mourning on his death from 6 December to 15 December 2013 ending his funeral. At least 80 foreign heads of state and government attended his funeral events which were confirmed on 9 December 2013. On the last funeral day, his body was buried at Qunu in the Eastern Cape of South Africa.
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